Home / Annotated Bibliography / Winter Annotations

Winter Annotations

Castello, M. (n.d.). Basic data types. In T. Chiasson & D. Gregory (Eds.), Data  + design: A simple introduction to

preparing and visualizing information, (pp. 20-27).  Retrieved from http://ormatlas2prod.s3.amazonaws.com/pdf/13a07b19e01a397d8855c0463d52f454.pdf

This chapter on basic data types opened up my eyes to the world of data and it also left me feeling very confused and concerned about the upcoming class as the chapter was the first thing we read.  I do not think of myself as a numbers person and it is often difficult for me to wrap my head around concepts that relate to them. The chapter outlined the various levels of measurement of nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio data, explaining the differences between them.  Nominal data is when you have items that you can count as units and they remain as whole units, you can calculate a percentage of them but you cannot divide the numbers. Ordinal data is categorical data that, implied by the name, goes in an order. The categories on a likert scale are an example of ordinal data.  Unlike ordinal data, interval data and ratio data are both numeric. Interval data can be any number you can use in a mathematical equation, either positive or negative with zero not meaning lack of anything whereas in ratio data zero is a hard stop on the numerical scale. An example of this is height. When we measure height with start with zero and only go up in scale, not down.  

The importance of wrapping my mind around these levels of measurement along with the other data types explained in chapter 1, is that in order to be able to analyze data and also in the process of designing tools to create data, the basics need to be understood to interpret it accurately.  

Keywords:  data, measurement, scales, qualitative, quantitative, information

LO5:  Critically analyze messages


Du Soleil, Oz.  (n.d.). Getting data ready for cleaning.  In T. Chiasson & D. Gregory (Eds.), Data + design: A simple introduction to preparing and

visualizing information (pp. 99-114).  Available from http://orm-atlas2prod.s3.amazonaws.com/pdf/13a07b19e01a397d8855c0463d52f454.pdf

In the introduction to Eric Patrick’s information design course, the second course in our winter semester, he mentioned that we would be cleaning data.  I didn’t even know what that meant but I immediately felt scared. I had never cleaned data before and usually when I think of data, I think of numbers, which I am not always the best with.  After reading this chapter I understood that cleaning data means making data able to be presented clearly and consistently. There were trips provided including the fact that prior to the actually cleaning of data, such as always making a copy of a data set before doing any data cleaning (pp. 105).  In the process of having to clean a data set, removing columns and rows that were irrelevant, making sure that all data was formatted in the same way, I discovered that I love cleaning data. I am actually looking forward to receiving data sets, which I know I will as I move forward with my career, as data is used is almost every field, but especially in marketing.     

Keywords:  data, data preparation, values, variables, records

LO4:  apply communication-centered scholarship in order to strengthen communication effectiveness. 

LO6: create and deliver elegant messages appropriate to the audience, purpose, and context.


Gregory, Dyanna.  (n.d.). What data cleaning can and can’t catch.  In T. Chiasson & D. Gregory (Eds.), Data + design: A simple introduction to

preparing and visualizing information (p. 132-134).  Available from http://orm-atlas2prod.s3.amazonaws.com/pdf/13a07b19e01a397d8855c0463d52f454.pdf

Keywords: data, data cleaning, excel, spreadsheet

LO3:  address complex challenges by collaboratively leading teams across disciplines, distances, and sectors. 


Law, Ginette.  (n.d). Intro to survey design.  In T. Chiasson & D. Gregory (Eds.), Data

    + design: A simple introduction to preparing and visualizing information (pp. 47-59).

    Available from http://orm-atlas2prod.s3.amazonaws.com/pdf/13a07b19e01a397d8855c0463d52f454.pdf

Surveys are tools that we encounter all the time but this chapter brought to light the fact that there is a right way and a wrong way to compose a survey and that designing a good survey entails not only composing questions but having a purpose behind the composition and execution of that survey.  The chapter reviews the main types of both self-administered and administered surveys and the pros and cons of each. Between web and email surveys, phone surveys, face-to-face surveys and handouts, there is a survey type for all for any scenario. This chapter was especially important as I have developed surveys for jobs before but never used any guidelines to assess the best type and if the survey was appropriate to answer the question(s) I was aiming to.  A big component of the work I do is assessing the customer experience. Having the knowledge and the skill sets to effectively design surveys and survey questions is a key attribute to being able to do this. 

Keywords:  survey, design, research

LO6:  create and deliver elegant messages appropriate to the audience, purpose, and context.

LO3:  address complex challenges by collaboratively leading teams across disciplines, distances, and sectors.  


Javornik, A.  (2016). What marketers need to understand about augmented reality. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from

https://hbr. org/2016/04/what-marketers-need-to-understand-about-augmented-reality.

This article reviews the use of augmented reality (AR) in marketing.  Augmented reality is defined by Javornik as “the ability to overlay virtual content on the physical world and have the two interact in real time.”  The concept is something that I only saw in movies or read about in fiction books as a child, but it is very much a reality in today’s world, and as a marketing professional, one must understand its uses and implications.  An example of how it may be used in retail for example, is seeing a shade of lipstick on your face, virtually, without having to buy the lipstick first or physically apply anything to your face. Working in customer experience, I can understand how using AR apps and tools can enhance a customer experience, when used in situations where it is not too intrusive or laborious for the user and where it does indeed provide a value-added experience.  As Javornik surmises, it is judging the context that is most important for professionals such as myself in determining the use of AR appropriate or necessary.      

Keywords:  Augmented reality, marketing, technology, virtual reality  

LO3: address complex challenges by collaboratively leading teams across disciplines, distances, and sectors. 

LO6:  create and deliver elegant messages appropriate to the audience, purpose, and context. 


Patrick, E.  (2019). Color.  Retrieved from Northwestern University, MSC program Canvas website: 

https://canvas.northwestern.edu/courses/85136/pages/color

This lecture was one of my favorites of the course.  I love colors and I love working with colors in creating a design.  I was once told by a former boss that I should have just become a color expert, whatever that is, because I had an eye for color and seeing what would go together and what would not, in any type of design.  However, I have no formal training in color theory so actually learning a little bit of color theory was an eye opener. We also learned of tools to use to create color palettes for brands, such as palleton, a tool I had never heard of before and which I know I will use as a resource in the future.  

Keywords: color, design, color theory

LO4:  apply communication-centered scholarship in order to strengthen communication effectiveness. 


Patric, E.  (2019). Data:  Where it comes from and what to do with it.  Retrieved from Northwestern University, MSC program Canvas website:

https://canvas.northwestern.edu/courses/851236/pages/data-where-it-comes-from-and-what-to-do-with-it

This lecture on where to find sources of data was enlightening as professor Patric provided us with a list of resources where we could find free data.  Collecting data can be a time consuming and costly process, both in time and in money. Also, as we learned, there is often data that exists out there in the world that will answer your question, rather than having to go through the process of collecting new data, and because of online resources it is literally available at your fingertips.  I used some of the online platforms that he shared, most often the Google public data explorer, throughout the class and I know that in the future I will first turn to these potential resources when I am looking for information for marketing purposes.

Keywords: data, database, internet, sources, research

LO2: demonstrate the ability to assess complex organizational environments and achieve communicative goals.

LO3: address complex challenges by collaboratively leading teams across disciplines, distances and sectors. 


Williams, Robin, 1953-. (1994).   Designing with type: Type (& Life).  The non-designer’s design book: design and typographic principles for the

visual novice (p. 144-152).  Berkeley, CA: Peachpit Press.

The first chapter in the Designing Type section of the book provides a high level view of the different styles of type as they relate to each other in design.  Meaning, if only one style of font is used across a design or if multiple fonts are used and what the relationship the fonts can be-concordant meaning little to no variety, conflicting or contrasting.  An example of a conflicting relationship is when two fonts do not look right together to the eye because they are similar, but not the same. I see this so often and yet never knew there was a theory behind it.  For most of my career I have worked closely with graphic designers and yet I have had no formal training in design. This chapter provided information on type that will be hugely beneficial to my career and to my general design knowledge as I can more specifically talk to designers using concrete terms that are understood rather than just trying to explain my feelings. 

Keywords:  design, typeface, brand, aesthetic

LO4: apply communication centered scholarship in order to strengthen communication effectiveness.  

LO5: critically analyze messages. 

LO6:  create and deliver elegant messages appropriate to the audience, purpose, and context. 


Williams, Robin, 1953-. (1994).   Designing with type: Categories of type.  The non-designer’s design book: design and typographic principles for

the visual novice (p. 153-164).  Berkeley, CA: Peachpit Press.

Williams chooses six categories of typefaces to highlight as a way to distinguish between the details of fonts.  The categories are Oldstyle, Modern, Slab serif, Sans serif, Script and Decorative. It is easiest to distinguish between the types by looking at stroke thickness and serif presence or lack thereof.  Examples of each category are provided so that the reader can not only learn how to distinguish between the categories but also learn how some well known fonts, such as Times, which is an Oldstyle font, are categorized.  I knew the difference between a sans serif, a serif and a script font but I was not as familiar with the other categories. As someone who works with graphic designers often, having this additional knowledge of font types will allow me to more effectively communicate with them.     

Keywords:  design, typeface, fonts, serifs

LO4: apply communication centered scholarship in order to strengthen communication effectiveness.  

LO5: critically analyze messages. 

LO6: create and deliver elegant messages appropriate to the audience, purpose, and context. 


Williams, Robin, 1953-. (1994).   Designing with type: Type contrasts.  The non-designer’s design book: design and typographic principles for

the visual novice (p. 165-197).  Berkeley, CA: Peachpit Press.

Means of using font characteristics to help to distinguish between two fonts.  These include size, weight, structure, form, direction and color. Williams explains that using these platforms for contrast creates visuals that can impact message meaning and delivery.  Of the six categories, structure, form and direction were the ones I was least familiar with. Structure “refers to how a letter is built” (pp. 174). This is a difficult thing to articulate without accompanying visuals, but it refers to the shapes of the letters, like having a serif or sans serif.  The best example of form is capital letter vs. a lowercase letter and direction is if words are straight across horizontal, vertically positioned or perhaps on a slant-which Williams advises using sparingly. I have a natural eye for good design as well as an ability to manage and direct designers in an effective way.   This is largely what has led me to have roles rooted in creative direction. This course has really given me tools to use to be able to articulate changes and have a reason behind them besides my instinct. This knowledge will continue to be incredibly useful to me.     

Keywords:  typeface, aesthetic, contrast, size, structure, form, color

LO4: apply communicaiton centered scholarship in order to strengthen communication effectiveness.  

LO5: critically analyze messages. 

LO6: create and deliver elegant messages appropriate to the audience, purpose, and context.